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Reference Point Approach
To facilitate retrieval, reference point data tables can be retrieved either as the whole data table, or in blocks based on the line number. For the reference point method, it is important to get a good and fast estimation for distances and driving periods for location pairs not included in a distance matrix. This is relevant for use cases where there is no time to calculate routings (e.g. in a call center discussing with an impatient customer the earliest possible delivery time). This matrix could be provided by PTV AG or created with the help of the PTV xDima Server. In prospect theory, loss delivers this exaggerated sting because losses are measured against the actor’s reference point, not the actor’s net asset position. With regard to the exploratory manipulation of a probability versus “a chance”, the experiment produced no significant results.
Objects that we call stationary—such as a tree, a sign, or a building—make good reference points. From the point of view of the train passenger in Figure 1, such objects are not in motion. If the passenger is moving relative to a tree, he can conclude that the train is in motion.
Strategic Management Journal publishes original refereed material concerned with all aspects of strategic management. It is devoted to the improvement and further development of the theory and practice of strategic management and it is designed to appeal to both practising managers and academics. Strategic Management Journal also publishes communications in the form of research notes or comments from readers on published papers or current issues. Editorial comments and invited papers on practices and developments in strategic management appear from time to time as warranted by new developments.
Proportions of frame choice reasons other than the reference point-based choice. Recently, several researchers have discussed how people choose a frame in order to express outcomes or situations (e.g., McKenzie and Nelson, 2003; Sher and McKenzie, 2006, 2008; Keren, 2007; Honda and Matsuka, 2014). The framing effect is a cognitive bias that is at the root of prospect theory.
Biological reference points are different indicators that provide a standard for comparison. They are used to inform fisheries managers about stock’s status relative to various management objectives. BRPs are often based on fishing mortality rates, biomass, or the maintenance of adequate recruitment to the stock. Some of them are the target reference point and the limit reference point. REFERENCE POINT current position and history of port calls are received by AIS.
Downloaded data tables can then be cached by Universal API client applications. Add distance and direction values to return properties within a defined direction or proximity to the reference point. ReferencePoint values are not unique in Worldspan and Axess, and the same Reference Point name may occur more than once for a given country. Therefore, while country and city codes are technically optional in the request, they are strongly recommended to ensure that the correct reference point is used. In particular using the reference point method, routings between a great number of locations are calculated.