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These results indicate that frame choices are affected by the reference point presented as a prime, and almost all the participants did not explicitly make frame choices based on the reference point. Note that participants in Experiment 3B did not provide numerical estimates in the priming task. Thus, these results indicate that the effect of prime-based reference point was not generated by the unique procedure of the priming task (i.e., numerical estimation).
Research hypotheses H2, H3, and H4 all posit factors affecting the initial reference point, and they are examined using an analysis of covariance in which price and risk attitude are treated as experimental conditions and self-esteem is a covariate. (Note that risk attitude is technically a covariate, but since it was measured as a categorical variable, it was analyzed statistically as a treatment variable in an unbalanced design.) Detailed examinations of each hypothesis are given in order below. Finally, most research on risky choice includes, by definition, an explicit statement of the probabilities associated with each outcome.
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The disposition effect suggests that pride and regret heavily influence our investment decisions, a concept that academics have tried to explain using prospect theory. George had the same question, and he came to an interesting conclusion. This is just one example of how our daily decisions are affected by reference points and framing. Dr. Piotr Zielonka explains to you in more detail why it is important to take your reference point in mind when making financial decisions. For indicators to show any change or progress towards the communication objectives, a reference point needs to be established.
Likewise, when you remove a reference point, it may be a frame before it is reported as having been removed. If you remove a reference point before it is reported as added, you will not receive any events for it. To avoid being denied access, log in if you’re a ResearchGate member or create an account if you’re not. The position on a logging tool string that is used as the reference for depth measurements. In normal practice, each measurement is shifted in depth by the distance between the measure point and the reference point.
We note that the experimental procedure in Experiment 2 might have produced a strong effect of the reference point (i.e., prime) for the following two reasons. Second, the number that participants provided as estimates might have worked as an anchor and thereby affected frame choice. Previous studies have shown that a precedent numerical stimulus, called an anchor, significantly affects subsequent numerical estimation (e.g., Tversky and Kahneman, 1974). The priming task in Experiment 2 (i.e., the numerical estimation of the amount of water in a glass) might have affected the subsequent frame choice because of the preceding numerical estimate.